WASTE MANAGEMENT-the complete 5 R’s System


The resourceful way to manage (collection, transport, processing or disposal/utilization) & reduce the waste produced, usually by the anthropogenic activities, and to cut down its effects on the human health or local aesthetics or amenity.

The combined effects of globalization, industrialization, modernization and the increasing population have a cumulative effect on the environment and thus increasing large amount of various types of waste.

Keeping in view, the principle that development and sustainability should go together, it is necessary that a vigorous system of waste management should be there. In our INDIA, waste management is headed by Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change (MoEF) who work together with State Pollution Control Board set up in various States.

There are many rules & Acts, which are already established in India. The National Environment policy [NEP http://www.tnpcb.gov.in/pdf/nep2006e.pdf) is not focusing only on waste management but also on recycling and sustainable waste management.


The waste which can be categorized as biodegradable & non- biodegradable waste and is named as garbage, rubbish, trash or the household debris and is read under Solid waste management rule,2016. The term is referred to all discarded and thrown away solid and semi-solid wastes arising from human and animal activities. Its quantity depends upon season and standard of people living in an area. Advanced society believes in use and throws culture that further increases solid wastes. http://www.moef.gov.in/sites/default/files/SWM%202016.pdf The major types of solid waste categories & the related laws are as follows: 

1)Hazardous Wastes

2)Bio-Medical Wastes [BMW]

3)Plastic waste

4)The Batteries waste

5)E-Waste or Electronic waste

Bio-Medical Waste Management

Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules, 1998 were notified by the Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986. In exercise of the powers conferred by Section 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986), and in supersession of the Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 and further amendments made thereof, the Central Government vide G.S.R. 343(E) dated 28 th March, 2016 published the Bio-medical Waste Management Rules, 2016.

Hazardous Waste Management

Hazardous Waste Management Rules are notified to ensure safe handling, generation, processing, treatment, package, storage, transportation, reprocessing, collection, conversion, and offering for sale, destruction and disposal of Hazardous Waste. These Rules came into effect in the year 1989 and have been amended later in the years 2000, 2003 and with final notification of the Hazardous Waste (Management, Handling and Trans-boundary Movement) Rules, 2008 in supersession of former notification.